Preverbs (IPV) are particles which must be attached to verbs in order to function within a sentence. 

The boldfaced elements in examples (1) and (2) illustrate preverbs in use.  They are written with hyphens (-) to indicate that they are bound (much like dependent stem nouns) and cannot stand alone as words.

(1)      miyo-   “good; well”:            miyo-nikamow “s/he sings well” ; miyo-masinahikēw “s/he writes well”, etc.

(2)    āhkami-  “persistently”:       āhkami-nēhiyawētān “let’s keep speaking Cree”